CALCIUM CHLORIDE VS. MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE
Performance on Snow and Ice
FACT: Calcium chloride works well down to this temperature, while the melting action is impractically slow at this point. Melting temperature is a confusing area. Many suppliers quote the lowest temperature at which their product melts ice in a laboratory (the eutectic point), rather than what is practical in the field.
While MgCl2 has a eutectic of -33C (-28F), its melting rate drops to a low level well before it reaches this temperature. CaCl2, with a eutectic point of -51C (-60F), still has substantial ice melting ability between -23 and-32C (-10 and -25F).
FACT: Calcium chloride actually melts more ice between -18C and -1C (0 F and 30F). This was clearly shown in a Midwest Research Institute study (based on FHWA, Strategic Highway Research Board test methods). The study found that at -7C (20F), CaCl2 flake melted 29% more ice after 10 minutes and 42% more ice after 30 minutes than did MgCl2 flake. At -15C (5F), the difference was 25% after 30 minutes.
The results were even more dramatic in a study by SGS Testing Services. At -18C (0 F), CaCl2 flake melted 40% more ice than MgCl2 flake 5 minutes after application. This increased to 75% after 30 minutes. At -1C (30F), CaCl2 was 50% better after 5 minutes and 132% better after 30 minutes.
FACT: Calcium Chloride penetrates ice faster than magnesium chloride.
The Midwest Research Institute study also evaluated ice penetration. This factor is critical because ice melters must punch through ice and packed snow to break their bond with the pavement so plows can remove them. The study found that at -7C (20F), CaCl2 has 22% more penetration after 10 minutes and 38% after 30 minutes than MgCl2. At -15C (5F), CaCl2 had penetrated 58% more ice after 30 minutes.
FACT: Calcium chloride has a lower application rate.
Given their relative commercial strengths and active chemical purity, 50% to 100% more MgCl2 than CaCl2 is usually required to remove equal amounts of snow and ice. Liquid CaCl2 is applied at concentrations of 32% to 38%, while that for MgCl2 normally falls between 21% and 28%. Similarly, dry CaCl2 flake contains a minimum 83% active chemical versus dry MgCl2 which is at 48%. Conceptually, this means that two parts of CaCl2 does more work in less time than three parts of MgCl2.
FACT: Magnesium chloride is more detrimental to concrete.
MgCl2 suppliers claim less spalling than other deicers based on a test developed by SHRP. This method, which was designed to screen deicers quickly, does not correlate to the real world because it uses substandard, non air-entrained concrete and only 15 freeze-thaw cycles. The test sacrifices accuracy for speed. SHRP recognized this, and in the manual that discusses this laboratory test, it notes that “field testing is ultimately required to determine acceptable deicer performance and compatibility.”
FACT: Magnesium chloride is more corrosive to the metals found on roadways.
FACT: Magnesium chloride is more toxic.
Although CaCl2 and MgCl2 are considered non-toxic, the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances states that MgCl2 has nearly three times the toxicity of CaCl2 on a common measure of toxicity.
The Ministry of the Environment in British Columbia found that CaCl2 has significantly less toxicity than MgCl2 in bioassay tests on rainbow trout and the water flea daphnia. For instance, rainbow trout, which represent the high end of the food chain, were five times more sensitive to MgCl2 than to 35% CaCl2.
Both materials are used as micronutrient sources in animal feeds. CaCl2 is also a common food ingredient and is “Generally Recognized as Safe” by the US Food and Drug Administration. It is found in such foods as beer, cheese, canned tomatoes, olives, cherries and pickles.
FACT: If anything, Magnesium chloride is more harmful to vegetation.
Both materials are used in fertilizers. Beyond this, CaCl2 is sprayed on fruit trees and vegetables to provide calcium uptake. In fruit trees, for instance, this improves cold hardiness, reduces fruit disorders and boosts yields. And, an evaluation of how deicing salts affect spruce trees found that CaCl2 aids beneficial potassium uptake, while chloride levels increased with MgCl2.
After the first year of a two-year study on how deicers affect turf grass at Iowa State University, MgCl2 was found to be more detrimental than all other deicers except urea.
FACT: Magnesium chloride appears to be more harmful to the environment.
Tests with calcium chloride by Quebec’s Ministry of Environment found “no definite areas of environmental problems … subject to the use of good application practices”. In addition, CaCl2 is a clean, inorganic material that does not leave an oily or powdery residue after its use.
References to Reports/Studies
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Company.
McElroy, AD, CC Chappelow, G Cooper and JA Gail. “Melting and Penetration of Magnesium Chloride and Flake Calcium Chloride Deicers”. Transportation Research Board 75 th Annual Meeting. Jan.1996
SGS Testing Services Data. Unpublished report, 1995.
Chappelow, CC, Ad McElroy and RR Blackburn, “Handbook of Test Methods for Evaluating Deicers”. Strategic Highway Research Program, 1992.
Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory, Unpublished report.
Standard Test Method for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed to Deicing Chemicals. ASTM C 672-91.
Guide to Durable Concrete, American Concrete Institute, 201.2R-92.
Cody, Robert D, AM Cody, Pg Spry and GL Gan, “Concrete Deterioration by Deicing Salts: An Experimental Study”. Chiefly funded by the Iowa Dept. of Transportation, Project # HR-355.
NACE Corrosion Data Survey, Metals Section. Third Edition.
Corrtrol Services. Unpublished study.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Lewis RJ SR, Sax’s Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Ninth edition, 1998.
Ministry of the Environment, Province of British Columbia, File: 10-3-3-20: 1990.
Rase, Thomas J, “Calcium Nutrition Affects Cold Hardiness, Yield, and Fruit Disorders of Apple and Pear Trees”. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 19(7), 1996.
Bogemans, J, L Neirincks and JM Stassart, “Effect of Deicing Chloride Salts on Ion Accumulation in Spruce: Plant and Soil, 113. 1989.
Letter from LT Hubbard, PE, Director of Municipal Liquid and Environmental Waste Branch, Environmental Protection Division, Quebec Ministry of the Environment to the Ministry of Transportation.
By Pollard Highway Products, Ltd. Copyright © 2012
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Atlanta's Foremost Transgender Woman
Atlanta's Foremost Transgender Woman
Where do I find a doctor to prescribe female hormones?
HRT Realities for Transsexual Women
Neophytes are sometimes told âhormonesâ caused my changes.
Additional chapters in This Section include:
Myths of Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgender Females
HRT is not a magic pill
Impact of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Transgender Females
HRT will reduce physical strength
The traditional path for getting on hormone replacement therapy for transsexual women
Hormone replacement therapy for transsexual women
There are two essential links you will want to bookmark and review as you consider starting HRT in concert with your transition. Dr. Anne Lawrence includes detailed regimens targets for your blood work - which can be used to help educate uninformed prescribing doctors. Annie Richards information details studies regarding anticipated changes to the male body from HRT
Buying Female Hormones On-Line without a Prescription
I have a number of friends who completed transition through the use of non-prescribed HRT regimens. The most popular and reliable site for acquiring such meds is Transgender Zone:
Female Hormones and the transsexual Women
Additional chapters in This Section include:
optimistic expectations about the effects of hormones.
In a transsexual woman the surgical removal of the testes either during sex re-assignment surgery or by a bilateral orchidectomy (castration) is highly desirable because of the virilizing effects of the testosterone they produce. Without the testes present, not only can smaller doses of female hormones can be administered but unopposed by testosterone this will often have a greater feminizing effect on the body than before.
Puberty can be defined as the biological developments which change boys and girls from physical immaturity to biological maturity, and many of the differentiations in outward appearance and body shape between men and women occur or develop further during puberty. Unfortunately for a male-to-female transsexual, an inappropriate male puberty sets a physical mountain that can never be full conquered.
A lot more information about puberty and its effects is given in the separate
If the testes have been removed in infancy or early childhood (usually because the child has been identified as
Female type skull shape and facial features
Softer, clearer skin with no acne or spots
Smaller hands and feet
Stop facial beard hair growth
Little or no effect
Thick female type scalp hair and forehead hairline
Hair loss ceases, slight reversal of balding
Develop female pubic hair pattern. Hairless trunk and limbs.
Substantial improvement after prolonged treatment
Higher pitched feminine voice
Reduction of "Adams Apple"
No effect not ascribable to dieting
Variable, from slight to substantial breast development (Note 1)
Female type subcutaneous fat deposits (particularly thickening of hips, buttocks & thighs) and body shape.
Variable, slight to substantial fat redistribution after prolonged treatment
Weight increase (Note 2)
May actually increase unless supported by dieting and exercise
Reduced muscular development
Reduce size of penis and testes
Substantial to significant reduction(not necessarily good if SRS is planned)
Good mental health
Depression may occur
PMS and Hot Flashes only (Note 3)
Nikki began hormones in her mid-teens, 20 years later her female type fat distribution is evident.
Exercising should emphasize burning calories and general toning rather than aim to maintain or even increase physical strength, so daily sessions of aerobics, swimming or cycling are appropriate, but not power lifting, weights or even circuit training. Happily, once lost, it is almost impossible for a transsexual women to regain excessive "male" type muscle in areas such as the biceps if post-SRS or taking hormones and anti-androgens.
After perhaps an initial period of rigorous restriction (Atkin's et al), dieting really means a permanent change of eating habits, the aim is simply to adopt a healthy balanced diet that's relatively low in fat (this is easier to type than do, as I know!). A good rule of thumb is to eat no more than 2000 calories per day, if you are big framed then a better basis is fifteen times your
The final objective should be a weight close to a female rather than male norm for your
Reality Check Time
Some women choose to begin hormone therapy for what may be the wrong reasons, and perhaps with unrealistically high expectations of what the results will be. It's essential to be realistic about what hormones and feminisation surgery can do. Many of the transsexual woman featured in magazines, newspapers, on talk shows, and other media are exceptional in their looks, and would probably very feminine without any hormones or surgery. Beautiful women are [mostly] born so, not made.
(Left) Judith Kerr, once John Kerr, and (above) Susan Watson, once James Watson
Hormones can greatly assist the transition of a short and lightly built young man in to a completely passable woman, but hormones (nor anything else) cannot turn a tall, rugged, heavily built, balding, and elderly man in to a pretty and petite girl. Such a man is always going to have difficulty passing successfully as a woman, indeed even after all available hormonal and surgical treatment, the brutal reality is that he may still appear to strangers as a man in drag with "boobs stuck on".
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Sassy Hong Kong
The girl's guide to everything Hong Kong
Top 5 Cupcakes in Hong Kong
Hong Kong seems to have a ‘thing’ with cupcakes. Although 2012 was supposedly the ‘year of the macaron’ and 2013 the ‘year of the meringue’ (hrmmm…), specialty cupcake bakeries and boutiques don’t seem to be going anywhere soon – thankfully!
At Sassy, there’s always time for a cupcake fix! We figured our last top five needed a bit of an update, so here’s our round-up of the top five places to quash your cupcake cravings in Hong Kong…
Cupcake must-try: Coconut – a vanilla bean cake covered with melt-in-your-mouth coconut cream cheese frosting and topped with coconut shavings… I’m obsessed.
Sift locations in Hong Kong:
Sift Dessert Bar G/F, 46 Graham Street, Soho, Central
Sift Patisserie 22/F Horizon Plaza, unit 17-19, Ap Lei Chau, Ap Lei Chau
Sift Patisserie G/F, 51 Queen’s Road East, Wan Chai
Sift Patisserie Shop 240-241, Prince’s Building, 10 Chater Road, Central
Cupcake must-try: Red Velvet – a rich Valrhona chocolate cake laced with silky cream cheese butter cream frosting… I could happily demolish six of these bad boys in one go – seriously.
Kisses Cupcakes locations in Hong Kong:
Kisses Cupcakes G/F, 24 Gough Street , Central
Kisses Cupcakes G/F, QRE Plaza, 202 Queen’s Road East Wan Chai
PASSION BY GERALD DUBOIS
Most known about town for their phenomenally good bread, Passion also boasts a small but impressive range of beautifully crafted cupcakes. Aside from packing a BIG flavour punch with varieties like Red Berries on Lemon, Pandan on Chocolate and Pistachio on Vanilla, the presentation of Passion’s cupcakes is the kind of thing amateur foodie photographers dream of (#foodstagram #foodography #foodporn)…
Cupcake must-try: Vanilla on Vanilla – satisfyingly sweet and NOT boring!
Passion by Gerard Dubois G11, G12 and F12A, Lee Tung Avenue, No.200 Queen’s Road East, Wanchai Hong Kong
Gluten-free girls, rejoice! With a range of egg as well as gluten-free cupcakes in a variety of classic flavours available, Sweet Secrets has made getting a cupcake fix deliciously easy. When it comes to cupcake customisation, the creations here are in a league of their own. From intricately sculpted art cupcakes (and cakes), along with bespoke cookies and treats, the Sweet Secrets team pretty much caters to all tastes, dietary requirements and themed wishes.
Cupcake must-try: Java Java – a chocolate cupcake with coffee pastry cream & chocolate ganache; perfect for when I want my caffeine fix to fill me up.
Sweet Secrets Shop 2, G/F, 35-39 Graham St, Central
Located in the heart of Central, Cake-A-Licious has ‘go-to’ status for cake cravers of all kinds (cupcakes… giant cakes… cake pops…) across the 852. Set in a deep foil casing and topped with generous dollops of colourful piped icing, the cupcakes at Cake-A-Licious are fun, vibrant AND taste very, very good to boot.
Cupcake must-try: Outrageous Oreo – a complete chocolate overload but worth every bite!
Cake-A-Licious 11 Lyndhurst Terrace, Central
Long may the cupcake quest continue!
A special thanks to our contributor Emma
Sassy Hong Kong is the go-to guide for girls in the city that truly never sleeps. From al fresco bars and hole-in-the-wall restaurants, to secret shopping spots and special events, we pound the pavements in search of all the best Hong Kong has to offer. We support a strong, real-life community of Sassy Girls looking to make the most out of life in the buzzing metropolis we call home!
Why the Whole30 Diet Is Taking Over Instagram
Instagram is on a diet. Food porn has gone paleo. Excuse the "basic" terminology, but as "bikini season" fast approaches the Valencia-filtered bacon-wrapped food pics that once flooded your feed are being swapped out for crisp bird's eye shots of steamed salmon and lettuce wrapped turkey burgers—not a carb in sight. The diet du jour of the social media set is Whole30, an extremely strict, high protein, no grain regimen that spans 30 days with no slip-ups, or else.
Created in 2009, the Whole30 program is nothing new, but if hashtags are any indicator, the Paleo diet's shorter, more in-your-face cousin is having a major moment.
So what's the deal? Dallas and Melissa Hartwig, the diet's founders and authors of the New York Times bestseller It Starts with Food, believe eating sugar, grains, dairy, and legumes affect not just your weight, but also your energy and stress levels. Stripping them from your diet completely for 30 straight days will "reset" your body on all counts.
Okay, makes sense. But the real kicker is if you mess up (a splash of milk in your coffee, a bite of your friend's birthday cake, even a sneaky lentil) you have to start over from day one. "This isn't us playing the tough guy. This is a fact, born of education and experience. You need such a small amount of any of these inflammatory foods to break the healing cycle," explains the Whole30 website.
Such rigid rules may cause people who fall off to binge before they get back on the Whole30 wagon. Glassman also takes issue with prohibiting any dairy or legumes, which consist of beans, peas, chickpeas, peanuts, tofu, tempeh, and more. "Legumes provide a really great way to get in vegetarian meals," she says. "Also, I don't think you should drink milk all day, but there's a really good place for Greek yogurt."
"The Whole30 is restrictive because you're cutting out a lot of foods, but I try to focus on what you can have," says Barnet. "You think of new ways to cook certain foods that you're unfamiliar with. Maybe you've not had that many brussels sprouts before, so looking up as many different ways you can make them delicious is a good way to get through it."
But new ways to prepare things does not mean you're allowed any of those Paleo pancakes. Disguising your Whole30-approved ingredients in flourless brownies or coconut milk ice cream is strictly prohibited. "Don't try to replicate junk food during your 30 days! That misses the point of the Whole30 entirely," the website cautions.
So the idea is to learn new and healthy ways to prepare your food that you will continue to use post-diet. After completing a juice cleanse people often go straight to a burger and back to their old habits, but possibly not with the Whole30. "With the length of time, you'll learn enough cooking techniques (or ordering techniques) and recipes, so you feel confident carrying that on after. Also, you won't crave those other foods as much," says Barnet.
Since its inception, Whole30 has been about community, with blogs, forums, seminars, and workshops all dedicated to helping people on the program connect and support one another. So it makes perfect sense that it has found a network amongst the selfies and cat photos of Instagram, with people documenting what they ate and cooked with a new hashtag marking each day. And if you can't have any cookies, maybe getting a bunch of likes is the next best thing.
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